(TEXT SUBMITTED FOR PUBLICATION)

 

YORYM 1996.345 PEASHOLME GREEN/LAYERTHORPE, YORK

Roman Ceramic Building Materials

S Garside-Neville

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Methodology

A total of 618.205kg of Roman material was viewed from the Peasholme Green excavations. The material was recorded on a pro forma which noted the fabric number, form name, corners present, weight, length, breadth, thickness, presence of mortar, comments, and whether the fragments were retained or not. This information was then transferred to a computerised database to assist in the analysis of the sample. Fragments were retained where the piece had either some sort of feature (such as keying, stamps, etc.) or was a particularly good or near complete example of its type. Fragments which had no features were recorded by weight, fabric and any measurements, then discarded. All remaining fragments, paper records and computer files (including Word 6 assessment and publications reports and Access 2 database) are part of the archive.

 

The fabrics of the brick and tile were examined by x10 hand lens and matched with the York fabric series.

 

The sample is very fragmentary, so that no complete examples of any form was retrieved. However, a broad range of forms was identified along with a number of other features that will help to characterise Roman brick and tile in York. The frequency of each form is defined in terms of percentage by weight.

 

1.2 Location on site

The majority of the Roman material was found in Trench 2, with only a small amount of material found in other trenches.

 

2.0 Forms

Proportion of forms found on the site is shown in the graph below (Table 1).

 

Table 1: Ceramic building material by weight

 

2.1 Roofing

Roofing material made up some 34% of the sample by weight, with imbrices comprising 9% and tegulae 25%. The York examples take the usual Roman form of tegulae (flat tiles with flanges down either side) and imbrices (a half round tile that covers the flanges of two adjacent tegulae).

 

2.1.1 Tegula

The thickness of a tegula body ranged between 13mm-40mm. There is the hint that there were larger and smaller sizes of tegula. Betts makes the case for thinner tegula, between 17-21mm thick, being later in date, as found in other areas of Britain (Betts 1995, 269). Betts also suggests that smaller flanges may have been later in date than the larger (Betts 1985, 168-72). Unfortunately, due to the mixed nature of the deposits it is not possible to see if this is reflected here. Tegula flanges vary in height and shape, so where a flange profile was complete, it was drawn (Fig 1). The lower cutaways on tegula (which key into the next roof tile) were catalogued according to Betts (1986, 160). Cutaways D, E, F and G (irregular) were found in this sample. The cutaway D from York varied a little from the Betts drawing in that the edges flared a little (Fig 2). A few of the tegula had legionary tile stamps, signatures, hob nail imprints, and animal pawprints which are discussed below (3.0).

 

2.1.2 Imbrex

The thickness of the imbrex fragments ranges between 10mm and 31mm. Again, there is the possibility that the size of imbrex may be related to date. Some of the examples have light finger smoothing around the edge of the flared end of the imbrex, and occasionally there is a groove around the very edge of the tile.

 

2.2 Flue tile

As part of the Roman hypocaust system, flue tile would have formed cavities that carried hot air up within the walls of a room. There were different ways of doing this, either using a flat tile with spacer bobbins or using flue tile. At Peasholme Green only flue tile has been identified with any certainty. Overall, it constitutes 7% of the sample, with half box comprising 3% of the sample, and flue tile 4%.

 

2.2.1 Half box flue

Half box flue is similar to tegula, but it normally has a taller, thinner flange that would have been set against the wall. As with a box flue, the flanges are cut away in the middle to form vents that would have aided lateral movement of air within the walls. The York examples have latticed scoring on the sanded reverse, or flat, side of the tile (Fig 3). This is keying, which would have helped a plaster covering to adhere to the outer surface. The body of the tile has a thickness of between 20-35mm, and where the flange survives it has a height of around 75mm. Half box is not particularly common, and has been found on sites that suggest a 1st century date, though there are a couple of sites where the tiles are thought to date to the 2nd half of the 3rd century (Brodribb, 1987, 67). Evidence from the city of London points to their usage ceasing in the early 2nd century to be replaced by the box flue, though again one site has half box being used in the mid 2nd-3rd century (Crowley, 1992, 150).

 

2.2.2 Box flue

Box flue tiles are square sectioned tubes that usually have two opposing plain faces which have a central vent cut out of them. The other two faces would have keying for plaster or mortar. The walls of the flue tile measured between 11m-29mm. At Peasholme Green, the box flues have rectangular vents, and scored, combed or finger-impressed keying. The scored keying is similar to the half box in that it takes the form of a lattice pattern (Fig 4). Combed keying dominates the sample of flue tile, and is varied in pattern .

 

The combs used to make the keying had between four and seven teeth (Fig 5). At Leadenhall Court in London, scored, and not combed, box flue was found in 1st to early 2nd century contexts which supported evidence from elsewhere in the city that scored tile was earlier than combed box flue (Betts & Crowley, 1993, 53).

 

Finger impressed keying is only a small part of the flue tile assemblage (Fig 6).

Some of the fragments are very overfired and may actually be kiln material similar to group e (see section 4.2 below). However, this type of keying is known from other (currently unpublished) sites in York. It was made by running fingertips across the face of the flue tile and is similar to the type of keying found on some of the bricks. The possible fragments are shown in the table below:

 

CONTEXT

THICKNESS

COMMENTS

3063

15

FINGER IMPRESSED NEAR CORNER EDGES. POSSIBLY PART OF MAKING FLUE TILE AND PREPARING SURFACE

3106

15

4 FINGER IMPRESSED FRAGMENTS. OVERFIRED. MAY BE KILN MATERIALS

3118

13

FINGER IMPRESSED FRAGMENT. OVERFIRED. EDGES AND CORNERS PRESENT

3120

-

FINGER IMPRESSED FRAGMENT. OVERFIRED. MAY BE KILN MATERIALS

Table 2: Finger impressed flue tile fragments

 

2.3 Brick

Brick constitutes 40% of the sample. This figure includes fragments which are definitely brick (i.e. having at least one or two appropriately moulded corners, and those with thickness measurements that are too broad for tegula), but also other fragments which may actually have been tegula or other fragments.

 

Some of the brick has keying in the form of finger impressed lines (Fig 7) which could be in various formats such as two fingers drawn across the tile or a lattice pattern, and there is one fragment of combed brick (Fig 8). It is possible that some of the keyed brick was used as wall tile, but no other features (such as notches for holdfasts) were identified. Some of the brick had soft daub or clay attached which may mean that it was used in a kiln wall, see below (4.0).

2.3.1 Sizes

Those bricks with breadth measurements are listed below:

 

BREATH

THICKNESS

FORM

191

32

BESSALIS

208

36

BESSALIS

211

35

BESSALIS

211

43

BESSALIS

215

35

BESSALIS

276

53

PEDALIS/LYDION

Table 3: Brick sizes

 

Bessalis brick measured three-quarters of a Roman foot (c. 191mm) and was primarily used to make the columns to support hypocaust floors. The Peasholme Green examples are mostly a little larger than the average Bessalis in Britain (Brodribb 1987, 142).

 

The pedalis tile, one Roman foot (c. 296mm) square, was used for the capping and base tile for columns of bessalis. The lydion, one by one and a half of a Roman foot (c 296mm x 443mm) was used for paving, bonding, or could be used as a substitute for the pedalis. The largest brick only has a breadth measurement, which means the length of the other side is unknown and could be either a pedalis or lydion. If it is a lydion it is the smaller of the two sizes noted by (Betts 1985, 178)

 

2.4 Chimney pots

There are five fragments of material that may be chimney pot. These fragments are wheel thrown, and have a mid-brown sandy fabric. Three fragments are body sherds and have cut edges which would have formed part of rectangular or triangular apertures (Fig 9). Two of these fragments have scored lines which delineated the tiers of the apertures. These fragments come from an item tapering from around a diameter of 120-140mm. The other fragments are a base, or rim, sherd (Fig 10), which does not accord well with any of the chimney pots detailed in Lowther (1976, 35-48), and a small fragment which tapers inward and may be the very top of a chimney pot.

 

Chimney pots are usually made of a tile-like fabric (Lowther 1976, 37), but the Peasholme Green fragments are in pottery fabrics. However, there are some examples of chimney pots in pottery fabrics, most notably from Verulamium (Lowther 1976, 48). These fragments differ from the known chimney pots in York in that the fabric is not recognisably a tile fabric and there is not a ridge of clay between the tiers of apertures. However, although the exact appearance of the complete item is uncertain, the fragments are clearly part of a tapering cylinder-shaped object, and there are apertures. On balance, considering that both pottery and tile were made at these kilns so that the potters were available to make such items, it is likely that these fragments are part of chimney pots.

 

2.5 Pipes

There are 21 fragments of possible piping. Most fragments can be assigned as pipe with some confidence. It is possible that these pipes are vaulting tubes, used to support a vaulted roof. However, the pipes from Peasholme Green are different to published examples from Chester (Mason 1990, 218-220) and unpublished examples from excavations at Back Swinegate in York (Yorkshire Museum accession code YORYM 1989.28 and 1990.28). The Peasholme Green fragments are clearly larger and whereas those from Back Swinegate are probably coil built and wheel finished, these pipes are wheel thrown. Of the two published examples from Church St Sewer in the legionary fortress one is probably a vaulting tube (Whitwell 1976, 40 fig 23, and 45). The other may be a water pipe (Whitwell 1976, 40 fig 22, and 45), but it is flanged whereas the Peasholme Green examples are not. However, good parallels are present at the Holt Legionary tile works, which have very similar rims and socketing arrangements and are interpreted as water pipes (Grimes 1930, 134, fig 60, 10-13). It is therefore likely that the Peasholme Green examples are water pipes.

 

There are at least three types of pipe rims:

 

Type 1

Beaded rim, which is often roughly trimmed on the end. It has a bore of 70-100mm (Fig 11). There is a variant with the rim pulled inward.

 

Type 2

Straight plain rim, with a bore of 60-80mm (Fig 12).

 

Type 3

Shouldered neck. There is only one fragmentary piece of this type. The bore of the body is around 70mm (Fig 13).

 

3.0 Features

In addition to keying (see above, section 2.2.2 and 2.3) various features can be found on the surfaces of Roman tile. Some are deliberately made, as in the case of tile stamps, signatures or tally marks, but many are accidental such as animal pawprints. A few fingerprints were observed on the tile and these were caused by the tilemaker picking up the tile prior to firing. There were three brick fragments which had deliberate holes, approximately 5mm across. It is likely that these were firing holes, to aid the circulation of heat during firing, which were sometimes made when a tile was particularly thick.

 

3.1 Animal prints

Animal pawprints are a well-known feature on ceramic building materials. At various points during the manufacturing process tiles were laid out in the open, and animals in the vicinity could walk over them. The usual cat and dog pawprints were observed, along with some pig hoofprints (see Table 4). More unusually, a pawprint of a stoat was found on one of the tiles. The environment must have been suitably attractive for an animal normally found in woodland or farmland (Leutscher 1985, 15).

 

CONTEXT

FORM

COMMENTS

1052

TEGULA

CAT PAWPRINTS

3003

BRICK

DOG PAWPRINT

3082

IMBREX

DOG PAWPRINT

3082

BRICK

PIG HOOFPRINT

3142

TEGULA

DOG PAWPRINT

3160

BRICK

DOG PAW PRINT

3167

BRICK

CAT PAWPRINTS

3167

BRICK

DOG PAWPRINTS

3168

BRICK

STOAT PAW PRINTS

Table 4: Occurrence of animal prints

 

3.2 Hob nail imprints

As well as animals, humans left their boot imprints on tile (Table 5). This may have been a more deliberate act. The prints found very incomplete, so that the size of the boots cannot be gauged or the patterns of the hobnails discerned.

 

CONTEXT

FORM

2008

TEGULA

3070

BRICK

3082

BRICK

3106

TEGULA

3107

BRICK

3118

BRICK

3118

BRICK

3118

BRICK

3137

BRICK

3145

BRICK

Table 5: Occurrence of hobnail imprints

 

3.3 Tally marks

Tally marks are normally found on the edge of a tile, and take the form of Roman numerals. The marks are thought to have been cut into the clay by a knife, or occasionally it is evident that a sharp stick was used. These numerals may indicate some sort of system of keeping track of how many tiles had been made in one day. However, tally marks are not found on every tile, and at Peasholme Green they do not appear frequently (see Table 6).

 

CONTEXT

FORM

COMMENTS

2003

BRICK

TALLY MARK : /

3148

TEGULA

TALLY MARK: l \ (see FIG 14)

Table 6: Occurrence of tally marks

 

3.4 Signatures

Finger made signatures occur on the surface of Roman tiles, and most frequently on tegula and brick. The purpose of these markings is uncertain, but it may have been a way of identifying individual tile makers. Betts (1985, 192-194) created a catalogue of signatures on York tile, and the following signatures were found at Peasholme Green (Table 7):

 

CONTEXT

FORM

COMMENTS

2088

BRICK

INCOMPLETE ARC SIGNATURE - COULD BE BETTS 1, 2, 3, OR 4

3006

TEGULA

NEW SIGNATURE (SEE FIG 15)

3007

BRICK

BETTS 8? SIGNATURE

3063

BRICK

BETTS 3 ARC SIGNATURE

3076

HALF BOX

BETTS 6 LOOP SIGNATURE ON SMOOTHED SURFACE

3115

TEGULA

NEW SIGNATURE (SEE FIG 16)

3134

TEGULA

BETTS 2 ARC SIGNATURE

3138

BRICK

BETTS ?18 (INCOMPLETE SIGNATURE)

3143

BRICK

INCOMPLETE ARC SIGNATURE - COULD BE BETTS 1, 2, 3, OR 4

3144

TEGULA

NEW SIGNATURE - AND NEW LEGIONARY TILE STAMP (SEE FIG 17)

3145

TEGULA

NEW SIGNATURE (SEE FIG 18)

3146

TEGULA

BETTS 4 ARC SIGNATURE

3147

BRICK

NEW SIGNATURE (SEE FIG 19)

3148

TEGULA

BETTS 1 ARC SIGNATURE, ALSO HAS TALLY MARK

3150

TEGULA

BETTS 3 ARC SIGNATURE

3161

TEGULA

NEW SIGNATURE (SEE FIG 20)

3167

TEGULA

BETTS 2 ARC SIGNATURE, ALSO HOBNAIL IMPRINTS

3170

BRICK

BETTS 2 SIGNATURE

Table 7: Occurrence of signatures

 

3.5 Legionary stamps

There are 28 stamps from the site. These have been identified using Betts' catalogue (1985, 209-218), which was based on, and enhanced, Wright's Sixth Legion (1976, 224-235) and Wright's Ninth Legion (1978, 379-382) tile stamp catalogues. It is evident that over time the stamps (which were probably made of wood) would show signs of wear so that some features are lost. Also variations in the amount of pressure that was used to press the stamp into the clay, or in the plasticity of the clay can affect the legibility of a stamp. Consequently, rather than add a new type, if a stamp showed a good resemblance to one of Betts' drawings it has been given the appropriate number with a query (eg. 8?).

 

9th Legion

BETTS NO.

FABRIC NO.

FORM

THICK. MM

COMMENTS

CONTEXT

4

R2

TEGULA

32

BURNT EDGE; LOWER CUTAWAY D

3161

4

R9

TEGULA

23

LOWER CUTAWAY D

3082

6

R9

IMBREX

24

ABRADED

3147

8?

R2

BRICK

31

ARC SIGNATURE; OVERFIRED

2088

8?

R9

BRICK

-

 

3083

8?

R2

BRICK

28

sf24; OVERFIRED

2118

 

 

6th Legion

3

R2

BRICK

29

 

3150

3

R3

BRICK

30

 

3161

4

R9

TEGULA

27

sf355

3168

4

R9

TEGULA

28

sf353

3168

4?

R9

IMBREX

19

FRAGMENTARY

3181

11?

R9

IMBREX

25

 

3165

11?

R9

BRICK

-

sf352

3168

35

R6

BRICK

-

FAINT

3107

47?

R9

IMBREX

19

sf351

3168

47?

R2

BRICK

49

FAINT; VICTRIX

3166

50

R9

BRICK

28

GRAFFITI: VVVC ? (SEE SECTION 3.6 AND FIG 24)

3168

56

R9

IMBREX

23

FAINT; VICTRIX

3157

72?

R2

TEGULA

32

OVERFIRED

3161

93

R2

TEGULA

36

sf354; PIA FIDELIS

3168

 

Unassigned

NEW

R3

IMBREX

14

TRENCH 2; ANSATE STAMP; 6TH LEGION; NEW TYPE (see FIG 21)

U/S

?

R8

BRICK

-

FAINT STAMP; ABRADED; OUTLINE LOOKS 6TH LEGION

3107

NEW

R9

TEGULA

27

6TH LEGION PIA FIDELIS; NEW TYPE (see FIG 22)

3120

?

R9

TEGULA

31

PROBABLY STAMP; VERY FAINT

3142

NEW

R3

TEGULA

28

sf343; 6TH LEGION; NEW TYPE ; (see FIG 17); NEW SIGNATURE (SEE TABLE 7)

3144

?

R9

TEGULA

28

CORNER OF STAMP ONLY

3148

NEW

R9

IMBREX

23

sf348; 6TH LEGION; NEW TYPE (see FIG 23)

3167

?

R2

BESSALIS

32

sf3156; FAINT STAMP; STOAT PAW PRINTS

3168

Table 8: Occurrence of legionary tile stamps

 

There are four tile stamps that cannot be fitted into Betts' catalogue. These are all Sixth Legion stamps. The Sixth Legion stamps have a greater range of types, which probably reflects the length of time the legion was manufacturing and stamping tiles I York.

 

The Ninth legion stamps from Peasholme Green have only two fabrics associated with the dies. These fabrics are relatively fine, and this is mirrored by Betts where he finds that generally the Ninth legion stamps are in a fine fabric (Betts 1985, 235).

 

3.6 Graffiti

One fragment of graffiti was found on a brick, from context 3168, with a Sixth Legion tile stamp (FIG 24).

 

(See separate report by another specialist)

 

4.0 Kiln materials

4.1 Kiln bricks

These bricks are a distinct group. Incomplete, the measurements were at least 250mm-333mm breadth by 20mm-130mm thick. The fabrics of these tiles, though broadly identifiable with the normal fabric samples, were much rougher in manufacture, and had moderate amounts of organic matter, in the form of grass or straw, incorporated. The bricks were moulded using a sanded frame mould, with the clay being laid on a straw or grass surface. The upper surface had been smoothed, but no attempt was made to trim rough edges. The condition of the bricks varied, with some sections within an individual brick being quite hard and seemingly well-fired, and other parts having the consistency of daub. These bricks had been exposed to heat, but in an inconsistent, uncontrolled manner. Similar bricks were found at the legionary tileworks at Holt, Clwyd. These were called 'crude' tiles by the excavator, and were used in the walls of the kilns (Grimes 1930, 28 and 31).

 

4.2 Miscellaneous items

Other items, which due to apparent overfiring, underfiring or missfiring, are probably kiln materials of some sort. Five groups of material were observed:

 

a) Flat tile with a small raised flange or lip (Fig 25). It has a sandy orange fabric and is well fired. It is possible that this is not kiln furniture, and is merely a mis-shapened tile.

 

b) Clay plate fragments (two examples). These are flat, thin (10mm thick) plates which have a smoothed upper surface and a rough, sanded lower surface with impressions of straw or grass (Fig 26). One fragment has a slightly upturned edge. Similar plates were found at the site of a pot and tile kiln site at Harrold in Bedfordshire (Brown 1994, 90-91, figs 8-9). Plates that are flat or slightly concave are often part of kiln furniture (Swan 1984, 41), and these may have been used as setters which would have been used to cover the top layer of tile or pot in the open-topped kilns. The kiln would then be covered by turf of perhaps daub.

 

c) Flat clay slab with an irregular, widened edge (Fig 27). The fabric is quite well fired, and there are grass or straw impressions. Possibly clay bonding from the kiln structure.

 

d) Clay lumps. One is a roughly shaped sphere with finger marks, and is about the right size to sit in the palm of the hand (Fig 28). The other fragment is smaller and spherical, and has obviously been rolled between the palms (Fig 29). Both pieces have been subjected to heat. It is likely that these were used during the firing of the kiln, perhaps as spacers.

 

e) Daub. Finger impressed and has edges that suggest it was moulded around bricks (FIG 30). This could be part of the temporary covering over of the kiln prior to firing, or be from another section of the kiln.

 

5.0 Fabrics

Eight fabrics were present in the sample. However, it is clear from the samples that the fabrics are very much variations on a general theme of York clays. The fabrics range from fine to fairly coarse. This seems to be reflected in Betts' comments on York fabrics where he categorises the fabrics as fine, slightly sandy to sandy (Betts 1985, 224, 245-246 & Betts 1995, 268)

 

6.0 Discussion

6.1 Tile production

The ceramic building material is largely associated with tile production. Although kiln structures were not found, it is evident that the materials were adjacent to kilns. The material has many examples or burnt, overfired, underfired and vitrified fragments of tile, along with kiln bricks and other debris associated with firing ceramics.

 

Fired tiles embedded in daub were used in the kiln buildings (Grimes 1930, 31), and examples of these were also found at Peasholme Green in the form of tiles with poorly fired clay smeared across various surfaces. It is also possible that wasters were used to cover the open top of the kilns before firing (McWhirr, 1979, 99). Similar material was found at the nearby Borthwick Institute (King 1975, 213) and Adams Hydraulics (YAT 1990a, 1990b and 1991).

 

The majority of the sample came from Trench 2 located on Peasholme green. The sample has the normal range of Roman building materials, with a few unusual items such as chimney and water pipe. Some of the material has been reused, as attested by mortar attached to flat surfaces and broken edges. However, these account for only a very small proportion of material, and may have been used in kiln structures, or perhaps other buildings associated with the kiln.

 

6.2 Dating

One Sixth Legion stamp was stratigraphically below the Ninth Legion stamps, which points to secondary deposition of the material. It is likely that the wasters were dumped in one area, and accumulated over a number of firing seasons, before being redeposited . in the worked out clay pits at a later date.

 

It is possible that the half box tile is a product of the Ninth Legion. Half box tile probably went out of use by the beginning of the 2nd century (Betts 1985, 151), at about the time the Ninth Legion moved on from York. Scored box flue tiles might be an early Sixth Legion product, and they changed to combing shortly thereafter.

 

This site has indicated the range of the Roman ceramic building materials

manufactured in York during the late 1st and 2nd centuries and perhaps the early 3rd century. However, it is not possible to gauge the full significance of fabrics and forms without reference to securely dated, stratified assemblages of material from other York sites.

 

Acknowledgements

Thanks go to: Vivien Swan who discussed the ceramic material with me; Kurt Hunter-Mann who discussed various aspects of the site and report; York Archaeological Trust staff who provided ready access to the documents and ceramic building materials of the Adam's Hydraulics excavations; MAP Archaeological Consultancy who provided help with the excavation records

 

Bibliography

Betts I M, 1985. A Scientific investigation of the brick and tile industry of York to the mid-eighteenth century. Bradford University (unpublished PhD thesis)

 

Betts I M, 1995. 'Roman tile fabrics' in Phillips D & Heywood B Excavations at York Minster, Volume I, Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, 268-269

 

Betts I M & Crowley N, 1993. 'Building Materials' in Milne G & Wardle A, 'Early Roman development at Leadenhall Court, London and related research' London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Transactions, Volume 44, 1993, 53-59

 

Brodribb G, 1987. Roman brick and tile. Alan Sutton

 

Brown A, 1994. 'A Romano-British shell-gritted pottery and tile manufacturing site at Harrold, Bedfordshire' Bedfordshire Archaeology, Volume 21, 1994, 19-107

 

Crowley N, 1992. 'Building Material' in Cowan C, 'A possible mansio in Roman Southwark: Excavations at 15-23 Southwark Street 1980-86' London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Transactions, Volume 43, 1992, 144-164

 

Grimes W F, 1930. 'Holt, Denbighshire: the work-depot of the Twentieth Legion at Castle Lyons' in Y Cymmrodor: the magazine of the honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, Vol. XLI, 1930

 

King E, 1975. 'Roman kiln material from the Borthwick Institute, Peasholm Green: a report for York Excavation Group' Antiquaries Journal, LIV, pt II, 1975, 213-217

 

Lowther A W G, 1976. 'Romano-British chimney-pots and finials' Antiquaries Journal, LVI, 1976, 35-48

 

Leutscher A, 1985. Animals, tracks and signs. Usborne

 

McWhirr A, 1979. 'Tile kilns in Roman Britain' in McWhirr A (ed.) 'Roman brick and tile' British Archaeological Reports, International Series 68, 1979, 97-189

 

Mason D J P, 1990. 'The use of earthenware tubes in Roman vault construction: an example from Chester' Britannia, Volume XXI, 1990, 215-222

 

Swan V G, 1984. The pottery kilns of Roman Britain, Royal Commission on Historical Monuments, Supplementary Series 5

 

Whitwell, J B, 1976. 'The Church Street Sewer and an adjacent building' Archaeology of York 3/1

 

Wright R P, 1976. 'Tile-stamps of the sixth legion found in Britain' Britannia 7, 224-235

 

Wright R P, 1978. 'Tile-stamps of the ninth legion found in Britain' Britannia 9, 379-382

 

YAT 1990a 'Report on the archaeological evaluation at Adams Hydraulics, Peasholme Green, York (Phase 1)' York Archaeological Trust Evaluation Report, 1990/1

 

YAT 1990b 'Report on the archaeological evaluation at Adams Hydraulics, Peasholme Green, York (Phase 2)' York Archaeological Trust Evaluation Report, 1990/2

 

YAT 1991 'Report on the archaeological evaluation at Adams Hydraulics, Peasholme Green, York (Phase 3)' York Archaeological Trust Evaluation Report 1991/10

 

Figures

Fig 1 Tegula flange profiles (from flange tracings)

Fig 2 Tegula cutaway Betts Type D, variant. Context 3082

Fig 3 Half box tile, scored with a lattice design. Context 3145

Fig 4 Box flue tile, scored with a lattice design. Context 3118

Fig 5 Box flue tile, combed. Context 3188

Fig 6 Box flue tile, finger impressed. Context 3063

Fig 7 Brick, finger impressed keying. Context 3148

Fig 8 Brick, combed keying. Context 3118

Fig 9 Chimney, body sherd showing apertures. Context 3109

Fig 10 Chimney, rim/base sherd. Context 3100

Fig 11 Water pipe, beaded rim. Context 3181

Fig 12 Water pipe, plain rim. Context 3161

Fig 13 Water pipe, shoulder fragment. Context 3119

Fig 14 Knife cut tally mark, on tegula. Context 3148

Fig 15 New signature, on tegula. Context 3006

Fig 16 New signature, on tegula. Context 3115

Fig 17 New signature (incomplete), with new Sixth Legion tile stamp, on tegula. Context 3144, sf 343

Fig 18 New signature, on tegula. Context 3145

Fig 19 New signature, on tegula. Context 3161

Fig 20 New signature, on brick or tegula. Context 3147

Fig 21 New legionary tile stamp, on imbrex. Ansate. Sixth Legion Pia Fidelis. Context Trench 2, unstratified

Fig 22 New legionary tile stamp, on tegula. Sixth Legion Pia Fidelis. Context 3120

Fig 23 New legionary tile stamp, on imbrex. Sixth Legion. Context 3167

Fig 24 Graffiti, on tegula. Includes Sixth Legion tile stamp, Betts 50. Context 3168

Fig 25 Kiln material, group a. Context 3108

Fig 26 Kiln material, group b. Context 3137

Fig 27 Kiln material, group c. Context 3108

Fig 28 Kiln material, group d. Context 3005

Fig 29 Kiln material, group d. Context 3177

Fig 30 Kiln material, group e. Context 3109

 

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